Indigenous peoples’ territories in almost all parts of the world are richly endowed with minerals, oil and gas. This endowment, however, has become a curse to many indigenous peoples because this has attracted and continues to attract extractive industry corporations to their territories. This book discusses the impacts of the extractive industries on indigenous peoples and then outlines global responses, from community resistance to national policy changes. The book aims to empower indigenous activists, community leaders and their supporters on the issues around the extractive industries. It covers the background to, and latest developments in, the ways that indigenous communities relate to the extractive industries. It also reviews the importance of Free, Prior & Informed consent (FPIC).