Perú grita para defender su tierra del proyecto minero Tía María

Perú shouts to defend their land from Tía María mining project

UNOPS entregó Informe de Revisión del Estudio Ambiental del Proyecto Tía María al Ministerio de Energía y Minas

Original source: Solidarité avec Cajamarca

A story against men and the environment and the resistance of a people against this aggression

tia maria 04

 

Overview of the Tia Maria project

nature of the project.
The Tia Maria project is a poly-metallic mining project, being the dominant copper metal, based on strip mining or open pit. Mineral processing, follows the conventional treatment for this type of mine ore reduction powder (crushed) leaching in acidic solution (sulfuric acid solution), refining, organic solvent extraction, concentration of the solution and obtaining metallic copper by electrolysis (metallic copper is fixed on the electrodes). The project is expected to produce 120,000 tonnes of copper per year.

Like all mining projects will be very impactful on the environment, remember that the production of each ton of copper consumes about 450 kilos of explosives based on ammonium nitrate (highly polluting), 150-200 m3 of water and requires removal of 3,000 tons of rock (100,000 tons displaced each day) after treatment the thousands of tons end up in the tailings deposits and will become a permanent source of contamination. Another key factor is the consumption of electricity for the electrolysis, each ton of copper produced 250KWh consume.

Another feature of the project will be the installation of a desalination plant seawater, required by the limited availability of fresh water in the region, this unit is itself an environmental problem because this type of installation requires a lot of energy and produces a lot brine (waste salt water with a high concentration in salt), energy is estimated at 5 kWh per m3, the plant should supply 60,000 m3 / day, which will be a very large facility, among the largest in the world .

Project status.

The project consists of two open pits (Tia Maria, located in the Quebrada Cachullo and Tapada located in the Pampa Yamayo), in fact, is the last place (the Tapada) seems the most promising in terms of wealth mineral, however, the entire project took the name of Aunt Mary.

 

tia maria 01

Source: Ministry of Energy and Mines – Minem

Without presenting the same environmental risks Yanacocha Conga mine located directly at the head of basin, the largest aquifers in northern Peru, the Tia Maria project, its location above the valley of the river Tambo located 2 km down, involves a high risk of contamination by seepage or runoff in the case of heavy rains (El Niño).

Financial details of the project.

The project is owned by the Southern Peru Copper Corporation, a subsidiary to 84.6% of the Mexican group Grupo Mexico.

Total estimated investment : $ 1.4 billion

Estimated number of jobs: 3,500 during the construction phase (1 year), 700 during the operational phase.

The expected annual production: 120,000 tons, the production cost is estimated between $ 2,000 and $ 2,500 per ton of copper sales prices (May 2015): $ 6,000 per ton, a minimum annual profit (excluding amortization) of (6000 -2500) X 120 000 = no $ 420 million. The first five years are taken into account the depreciation of investments, from the fifth year the Peruvian State can expect an income of $ 120 million a year, half of these revenues will go to the department of Arequipa as payment of the “canon mining “, ie 60 million, which mainly go to the city of Arequipa and do not really help thousands of farmers in the valley of Tambo which are directly affected by the project.

Of course, that all this is done, we need to Southern properly pay taxes, without trying to artificially inflate their production costs, such as it does. Yanacocha. With that income of $ 60 million (about 200 million soles), which comes into their bags, mayor of Arequipa, Alfredo Zegarra and Regional President Yamila Osorio Delgado, fully support the project.

Southern already has other mines in Peru Cuajone (about 180,000 tonnes of copper a year), Toquepala (130,000 tons annually) and Ilo, where the company has a unit of concentration, refining and electrolysis with a capacity of 250,000 tonnes per year. The initial project for Tia Maria watched transporting ore to Ilo (distance over 100 km).

cuajone-copper-mine-EPC-4-fw Cuajone mine

History of conflict.

Origin of the conflict

Southern presented the first environmental impact study (EAI) in June 2009, the Peruvian government then spent an advisory agreement with the United Nations Office for Project monitoring (UNOPS). The UNOPS report seriously reworked the Southern EAI, with no fewer than 138 observations. (See link # 1 and link # 2).

findings-138Source report ‘UNOPS

Meanwhile the residents of Valle del Tambo created a line of defense and organized a local consultation on 27 September 2009, in which 90% of the valley’s population was against the project. (See link No 1 et link n ° 2).

Despite the failure of Southern EAI, the government of Alan García wanted to launch the project and in 2010 tried to pressure UNOPS to review its report (Note that the performance of UNOPS, which is actually an office consulting with the seal of the UN, it was not free, it cost $ 6 million (UNOPS hires experts in the world and that is not free).

INDEFINITE STRIKE BY PROJECT IN Cocachacra TIA MARIA.  PHOTO: PEDRO TORRES - Trome PLACE: THE PROSECUTOR

. STOP BY PROJECT indefinite Cocachacra TIA MARIA
PHOTO: PEDRO TORRES – Trome
PLACE: THE PROSECUTOR

In March 2011 the Ministry of Energy and Mines rejected that report (and its 138 observations, 3 of which involved particularly serious environmental-risk) and broke the contract with UNOPS (see link) However, the report fell a leader of the Front for the Defense of the Tambo Valley, this fact provoked the anger of the farmers in the valley and demonstrations resumed on March 16, 2011.

The March 23, 2011, opponents of the project decided an indefinite strike (link) ,, the government sent police reinforcements, reaching 5,000 men (link) ,. The government declared a state of emergency on 27 March 10-April (Resolution 113-2011 / DE) ( link ), allowing the armed forces to participate in the repression. The clashes quickly became very violent ( link ) and against the violence, several mayors of the province decided on a hunger strike.

Video: hunger strike by violence mayors in the province of Islay

The police did not hesitate to use firearms, April 4, Andrés Taype Choquepuma died by a bullet in the chest, April 11, 3 people died from gunshot wounds, Aurelio Huarca Puma Nestor Cerezo Patana and Miguel Angel Pino. Then strain fell to the announcement of the suspension of the project. (See link 1 and link 2 )

November 22, 2010 RESIDENTS PROTEST Islay TIA MARIA OF MINING PROJECT SOUTHERN PERU AREQUIPA.  ROLLY REYNA PHOTO TRADE

November 22, 2010
RESIDENTS PROTEST Islay TIA MARIA OF MINING PROJECT SOUTHERN PERU AREQUIPA.
ROLLY REYNA PHOTO TRADE

In November 2013, Southern returned with a new environmental impact study, which the government of Ollanta Humala was officially validated in August 2014 ( link ). Tambo population did not trust either Southern or the government of Ollanta Humala and tension settled in Cocachacra and Islay. The December 19, 2013 in Cocachacra, the Southern government and organized a public hearing, in which only invited supporters of the project ( link 1 and link 2 ), the opponents could not even go to the hearing, 4000 policemen were there to deny them access, including 1,200 directly to block access to the premises where the “public” hearing (took place link ). However, the government decreed that the project received the “social license” ( link ).

tia maria 03

4 000 policemen deployed in the province of Islay and in the streets of Cocachacra to “protect” the public hearing of the Tia Maria project – in fact to prevent access to opponents

138755570558-security-in-tia-maria

In March 2015, Southern announced the start of the project, the EAI was officially accepted by the government in August 2014, the population of Tambo, who has never accepted this project resumed demonstrations.

Recent events

In early March 2015, the government talks about establishing dialogue meetings, this “roundtable” is not a dialogue, its sole purpose is to serve the interests of the government that wants to impose the project, whatever the cost.

image-tia-maria --- up-to-protest-052

Manifestation – central square of Arequipa

On March 23, a general strike began in the province of Islay, demonstrations are almost daily and repression intensifies; April 22 Victorian Huayna Nina, a farmer of 61 years, received a bullet in the leg fracture that breaks the femur and the femoral artery, Victorian bleeds to death, on May 5, Henry Checlla Chura also dies of a wound bullet during a demonstration in Mollendo ( link ). The next day, a police officer of 51 years, Alberto Vasquez Durand, dies of a serious head injury. On May 23, the Peruvian government decreed a state of emergency for 60 days ( link ), which formalized the use of the armed forces in support of the repressive system of the police, the armed forces were in the region for more than one month. The state of emergency entails restrictions on the rights of citizens, including the right to travel and the right to manifest, a state of emergency also allows the use of curfews.

Victorian Huayna Nina

April 22 – Victoriano Huayna Nina has just received a bullet in the thigh, he will die shortly after due to bleeding

In June, decline intensity conflict since the Tambo Valley farmers have to look after their crops and in particular have to harvest rice. However, the conflict is not over, as the government instead of seeking calm, undertakes a “witch hunt” against the movement’s leaders and against the mayors of the towns of the valley of Tambo. Pepe Julio Gutiérrez, president of the Defence Front Tambo Valley, one of the main protest leaders, was sentenced to nine months in prison and detained at the Criminal Socabaya ( link ).

PEPE CORNEJO JESUS ​​JULIO GUTIERREZ AND DETAINED BY THE COURT IN AREQUIPA

PEPE CORNEJO JESUS ​​JULIO GUTIERREZ AND DETAINED BY THE COURT IN AREQUIPA

Pepe Julio Gutiérrez, at the time of his arrest .

Organization and resistance.

The structuring of the fight against the mining project was established naturally, in fact 80% of the population lives Tambo valley agriculture, too, people have a long experience of the presence of mining in the region in particular they have a long experience of Southern and overall social and environmental irresponsibility of that company. Also, villagers saw the collapse of agriculture in several valleys in the region (including the valleys of the Locumba, Sama and Osmore rivers), all these rivers have seen their flow drastically by the combined effects of global warming and mining which not only consume astronomical amounts of water, but also the returns contaminated and unusable.

For farmers in the region, or mine or agriculture as such coexistence it is impossible. Valley Tambo del is the last fertile and productive valley in the region, one of the last oasis of greenery that sustains 13,000 people.

satellital

Satellite Tambo Valley oasis that sustains 13,000 people .

Since the first threats, ie in 2008, a line of defense, which later became the FDVT (Defense Front Valley Tambo), with the main objective of organizing a query that was created, the September 27, 2009, over 90% of Valley residents spoke out against the project, the government’s refusal to consider that popular decision led to the first demonstration on 27 and 28 October 2009. The front Defense Tambo Valley is the backbone of the resistance, its members are mainly farmers of the valley and is president Pepe Julio Gutiérrez from the front in 2009 constitution.

It is noteworthy that Pepe Julio Gutiérrez, received numerous threats and persecution by the Peruvian government, allegations of corruption and an attack on December 2, 2010, which was the subject of an information APRODEH (human rights organization of Peru ) and spread in France by the FIDH ( link ). Today he is in prison, sentenced to 9 months of detention by a corruption case known as “lentils” in which he is accused of demanding money to stop demonstrations against Southern and alleged flight risk, a court information Southern and timely for the government.

But the opposition of farmers is unshakeable and the eventual departure of President of FDVT not affect the mobilization as this conflict is not the case of one man, it is an entire valley, whose population lives on agriculture, which strongly denies to accept this mining project and as seen in the demonstrations on July 9 in Arequipa, his determination not weakened, on the contrary.

Video: Demonstration in Arequipa during the general strike on July 9, 2015

 

Smear campaigns, manipulation and denigration in the media.

As in January 2014 against opponents of the Conga project, the great Peruvian media unleashed a systematic campaign to discredit opponents of mining projects, the “anti-mining” or opposition to mining projects were officially became terrorists ( link 1 and link 2 ).

One of the leaders of the opposition to mining projects and founder of Tierra y Libertad, the priest Marco Arana was described as the successor of Abimael Guzman, founder of Shining Path ( link ), high clerical hierarchy excluded him from the Church ( link ) should be mentioned that the highest authority of the Peruvian Church, Cardinal Cipriani, Archbishop of Lima is a shareholder of the mining company Yanacocha, therefore, Marco Arana had been suspended from his priestly duties since 2011, following opposition the Conga project.

Arana Marco Arana

A real “witch hunt” triggers against the leaders and the mayors of the municipalities of Islay who participated or supported the protests. This is particularly the case of the mayor of the municipality of Dean Valdivia, Jaime de la Cruz, whose election was invalidated, and also threaten to four years in prison for his opposition to Tia Maria ( link ).

In † n-Jaime Valdivia de la Cruz

Jaime de la Cruz

The press did not hesitate to organize dirty tricks with the police, for example, in the case of Coasaca Antonio Mamani, the police captured a farmer in his hand and placed by force a pointed object, a photographer for the newspaper “Correo “Arequipa was waiting to take a picture of Antonio with the object in his hand and was an article with the argument:” the Tia Maria project opponents are violent and armed “. However, in this case, a person was filming the scene, the video turned into social networks and the scandal broke ( link ).

sowing

Police placed a sharp object in the hand of Antonio Mamani Coasaca

As in 2014, the press accuses NGOs denounce the abuses and violence of the police, of being anti-mining and finance terrorism. The campaign in the media reached such a point that the European Union ambassador in Lima, Irene Horejs, had to send a letter of protest to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru ( link and letter ).

 

The national and international support for the struggle of the inhabitants of Tambo

Of course, many expressions of support for the people of the province of Islay organized in different places, despite the relative silence of the great international media (for example, there was some information about the chains of French television TF1, A2 and FR3, Arte only spoke of the problem, simply returning what went on German television.

At the national level, is the support of the CUNARC ( link ) and the peasant patrols, particularly those in Cajamarca (living a similar dispute with the company Yanacocha), CNA (National Agrarian Confederation) ( link ), communities natives of the region of Puno and Cusco ( link ), youth movements, who organized several demonstrations, some harshly repressed, particularly in Lima ( link ) and of course the support of a leftist political movements, among others Tierra y Libertad and MAS and some members of Congress, including Jorge Rimarachin ( link ) and Veronika Mendoza.

manif Lima

Demonstration of support in Lima

red-Muqui-Cusco-valley-dairy

Demonstration of support in Cusco .

International support came from Belgium, France, Sweden, Italy, Spain, Germany, USA, we will include, among others:

  • The conference held in the French Senate on May 22, 2015, on the issue of extractive and devoted a large space to the events that occurred in the province of Islay ( link ).
  • The letter to Ollanta Humala by 19 members of the Swedish Parliament of 29 May 2015.
  • The open letter to Ollanta Humala co-signed by 300 intellectuals, including Noam Chomsky, of June 2, 2015 ( link ).
  • The declaration of the International Network of Solidarity trade union struggles and (laboursolidarity.org) of June 10, 2015, co-signed by a hundred organizations in the world ( link 1 and link 2 ).

accueil participant colloque

Welcoming delegates at the airport in Peru Orly- conference in the Senate of France on May 22

Bruxelles

Demonstration in Brussels during the visit of Ollanta Humala June 10

Berlin

Demonstration of support in Berlin on July 7.

The tragic toll of the management of the Peruvian government.

7 killed (4 in 2011 and 3 in 2015), that is the tragic toll of managing this conflict by successive Peruvian governments. Behind these deaths, hundreds of injured, some keep sequels or remain disabled for life, there are widows and orphans.

From north to south it is building solidarity against mega-mining projects.

The population of the Tambo Valley received the support of many national and international organizations. Tia Maria Conga listed as the most emblematic struggles against destructive megaprojects imposed by force.

All organizations of Cajamarca who fought and continues to fight against the Conga mining megaproject have supported the fight against the Tia Maria, FDAC (Environmental Defense Front of Cajamarca) project, farmer organizations and peasant patrols, the CUNARC and PIC (Platform Inter Celendína).

Celendin

Celendín demonstration on May 27

long banner

The Mamapachapa Unanchan or banner of Mother Earth is the largest green flag in the world, paraded in the streets of Lima in December 2014 during the summit of the peoples, today, refers to the struggle of the inhabitants of the valley of Tambo .

Gradually resistance is not only local but becomes a national resistance movement is established. The government knows but respond with the bloody and brutal or states of emergency multiplying repression against that, only a national and international mobilization can force the government aretroceder. Fighting Conga megaproject was the first to have an international dimension and to leave the borders of Peru, fighting the Tia Maria project is the second.

 

Socio-environmental liabilities and irresponsibility of Southern.

The parent company Grupo Mexico.

The February 19, 2006, several tunnels extraction of coal mine Pasta de Conchos (Coahuila, Mexico) collapsed after a gas explosion, 65 miners were buried. The research showed gross negligence on mine safety ( link )

Grupo Mexico caused one of the worst environmental disasters in the State of Sonora in Mexico, in a copper mine, on August 6, 2014, 40,000 m3 of tailings were discharged into a tributary of the Rio Sonora that was totally contaminated over a distance more than 200 km, the accident also contaminated groundwater and more than 300 wells were contaminated, a dramatic situation in this particularly dry region ( link ). By now the group evaded its responsibilities, helped in that by its proximity to the Mexican government.

sound

Sonora river pollution

In Spain, the Group is involved in a dark case of irregularities in the award of the Aznalcollar mine in Andalusia ( link ).

The group is also involved in numerous violations of labor standards.

Southern Peruvian subsidiary.

In 2007 the measurements made ​​in the Southern refinery plant in Ilo, showed that this plant did not meet emission standards. Discharges into the sea containing arsenic levels eight times higher than the standards. Moreover, smoke emissions had much higher rates of heavy metals standards. Southern was sentenced in 2015 (8 years after the fact and in the conflict for the Tia Maria project) to pay a fine of one million dollars, also, the judgment mentioned a prison sentence of 2 years against its president ( link ), however, their political support allowed him to avoid conviction ( link ).

Refiner ° to-Ilo-Photo-La-Dominican Republic £

Southern refinery plant in Ilo

Several studies in the region show in Ilo a sharp increase in respiratory diseases and air pollution since the establishment of the Southern refinery plant ( link )

Since the beginning of its activities in Peru the company has already been convicted fifteen times per serious environmental liabilities, but the most serious is the destruction of agriculture by attracting and water pollution. In fact, large-scale mining requires astronomical amounts of good quality water, the region of Arequipa is a dry region (see satellite images) that depends entirely on the Andean aquifers.

Southern Both mines produce more than 300,000 tonnes of copper per year, which implies a consumption of about 60 million m3 of water per year (2 m3 per second) minimum. Such consumption in a region that is already in water stress is total madness, Southern is already responsible for the decline of agricultural activities in the valleys of the region Mocquegua. The decrease in river flows also causes a concentration of pollutants to be linked to the enormous amounts of mining waste (tailings) (about 900 million tons per year), which generates Southern.

This problem of water shortage that makes agriculture is increasingly difficult problems associated with environmental pollution and health related to mining are the main components of the conflict. Do not forget that a fourth project of the same ilk is under negotiation in the region, it is the Quellaveco project could begin in the next two years (depending on negotiations between Southern and Anglo American).

 

Conclusion

The concept of Peruvian government on democracy.

First, we must question the concept of democracy currently in force in Peru, since his election in 2011, the government of Ollanta Humala has strengthened incredible way the tools of repression, including through the adoption of legislation such as the No 30151 of January 13, 2014 which exempts from criminal liability even if the police cause serious injury or death of people during their operations. 214 social conflicts that have marked the government of Ollanta Humala so far caused the death of 57personas, of these 214 social conflicts, 118 are strictly socio-environmental conflicts and caused most of these 57 deaths (over 40).

Also, think in real democratic will of a government, which officially turned 3 times the state of emergency (Cajamarca in 2011 and 2012 Islay in 2015) and also used it unstated 7 departments ( Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna) with No. 118-2015-IN resolution of May 26, 2015.

Also we remember that the Peruvian government declared it would not implement any of the precautionary measures requested by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH), precautionary measures for the opponents of the mining project Conga, decisions issued in 2014 and 2015 respectively and are available at the following link (records MC MC 452/11 and 530/14).

Finally, strange conception of democracy, when criminalize those who protest against projects imposed by force, when they are sent to jail democratically elected mayors and regional presidents, because they have the bad idea to not accept the will of the government Central.

The concepts of the Peruvian government in environmental matters

You can also consider the attitude, at least strange, the Peruvian government on the issue of the environment, a government that hosted the World Climate Conference, the COP20 in December 2014, and has never spared its efforts to remove all legal barriers against environmental destruction, including multiple “paquetazos” (name given to these “packages” of measures to encourage investment) issued by the Peruvian government in 2014 (Law 30,230) and 2015 (3941 Act) which totally ignore people living in the concessions that do not involve issues of environmental destruction and health protection and to reduce environmental impact studies (EIA) of projects to mere formalities.

Note that these packages of measures violate the rights of indigenous peoples, including No. 169 ILO Convention that Peru ratified in 1994 and in the 2007 Declaration of the UN on the rights of native peoples. Finally, these measures not abide the UN declaration of 2010 on the rights to water and sanitation and the constitutional rights of the Peruvian people to a healthy and unpolluted environment.

The COP20 to cop21 of Peru to France.

Although the three visits that President Humala made to France since his election have gone virtually unnoticed in the French press, relations between France and Peru are apparently rosy. Moreover President François Hollande himself had planned to travel to Peru in January 2015, but that trip was frustrated by the terrorist attacks in Paris in this month of January.

Humala hollande

President of Peru Ollanta Humala and French President Francois Hollande

If French companies are not directly involved in mining, they are indirectly through engineering and services and in particular large dam projects (especially for feeding energy mining). French multinationals are very present in the field of oil exploitation in the Amazon (Perenco, Maurel & Prom). But most significant is the collaboration between police forces and the French gendarmerie, cooperation began in 2012 and includes training services and sales armamiento and even helicopters (France sold 5 EC145 in 2012).

Sale of training and arms sales to exempt police from prosecution and does not hesitate to use firearms in their operating repression.

But François Hollande poses such questions, moreover, also received the President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, as guest of honor at the celebrations of the French national holiday this July 14, 2015. Coincidence, President Humala received and honored President Peña Nieto in Lima on July 2, probably, Francois Hollande and Enrique Peña Nieto had other topics of conversation that the 43 students of the Normal School Ayotzinapa who disappeared 10 months ago and the other thousands of killed and disappeared in Mexico.

Humala worth

The presidents of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto and Peru Ollanta Humala Tasso

Strange, but where are we with the goals set by the cop21? For now, there is still another match with Peru, the cop21 in Paris, as the COP20 in Lima, will be held behind closed doors in an isolated spot (Le Bourget), where only duly accredited persons shall be admitted for UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). There will be no banners or untimely boisterous demonstrators, only well-dressed ladies and gentlemen and people “hand picked” a meeting of “gentlemen”.

While “gentemen” are preparing to quietly discuss climate change in Paris, Paris 11000 km, small farmers, both North and South of Peru, they continue to struggle with courage and determination to survive against a government that wants to remove them and replace them with a much more profitable in the short term activity, but that has no future. This brave and unequal struggle, it is our duty to support it and make it known, as farmers of Cajamarca Valley Tambo or do not contribute to global warming, unlike the destructive extractive model that the Peruvian government is trying to impose by force.

CONGA NO VA – TIA MARIA EITHER!

Original source: Solidarité Avec Cajamarca

tia maria 04

Overview of the Tia Maria project

Nature of the project.

The Tia Maria project is a poly metallic mining project, with dominant copper as metal, based on open pit mining. Mineral processing, Follows the conventional treatment for this type of mine, reduction to powder of mineral (crushed) leaching in acidic solution (sulfuric acid solution), refining, extraction by organic solvent, concentration of the solution and Obtaining of metallic copper by electrolysis ( metallic copper is fixed on the electrodes). The project is expected to produce 120,000 tons of copper per year.

Like all mining projects will be very impactful on the environment, Remember That the production of each ton of copper About consume 450 kilos of explosives based on ammonium nitrate (highly polluting), 150-200 m3 of water and requires removal of 3,000 tons of rock (100,000 tons displaced each day) after treatment Those Thousands of tons end up in the tailings deposits and Will Become a permanent source of contamination. Another key factor is the consumption of electricity for the electrolysis, each ton of copper consume 250KWh

Another feature of the project will be the installation of a seawater desalination plant, required by the limited availability of fresh water in the region, This unit is itself an environmental problem Because this type of installation requires a lot of energy and produces a large amount of brine (salt water waste high salt concentration), energy is Estimated at 5 kWh per m3, the plant must Provide 60,000 m3 / day, Which will be a very large plant, Among the largest in the world

Project status.

The project Consists of two open pits (Tia Maria, located in the Quebrada Cachullo and Tapada located in the Pampa Yamayo), in fact, is the last place (the Tapada) Seems The most promising in terms of mineral wealth, however, the Entire Took the project name of Tia Maria.

tia maria 01

Source: Ministry of Energy and Mine – Minem

Without presenting the same environmental Risks as the Yanacocha Conga mines or Directly located in the head of basin, on the largest aquifers in northern Peru, the Tia Maria project, by Its location, above the valley of Tambo river 2 km below, Involves a high risk of contamination by seepage or runoff in case of heavy rains (El Niño).

 

Financial details of the project.

The project is owned by the Southern Peru Copper Corporation, a subsidiary at 84.6% of the Mexican group Grupo Mexico.

Estimated Total investment : $ 1.4 billion

Estimated number of jobs : 3,500 During the construction phase (1 year), 700 During the operational phase.

Expected annual production: 120,000 tons, the production cost is Estimated Between $ 2.000 and $ 2.500 per ton of copper, selling prices (May 2015): $ 6,000 per ton, a minimum annual profit (excluding amortization) of (6000-2500) X 120,000 = $ 420 million. The first five years are taken into account the amortization of investments, from the fifth year the Peruvian State can expect an income of $ 120 million Annually, half of esta income will go to the department of Arequipa as payment of “mining canon” About 60 million, Which mainly go to the city of Arequipa and it really will not help the Tambo Valley Thousands of farmers are That Directly Affected by the project.

Of course, That all this is done, is Necessary That Properly Southern ITS pay taxes, without trying to artificially inflate production costs ITS, it does: such as Yanacocha. With This income of $ 60 million (About 200 million soles), Which comes into Their bags, the largest of Arequipa, Alfredo Zegarra and the President Yamila Osorio Regional Delgado, fully support the project.

Southern Already have other mines in Peru, Cuajone (About 180,000 tonnes of copper per year), Toquepala (130,000 tons Annually) and Ilo, Where the company has a unit of concentration, refining and electrolysis with a capacity of 250,000 tons per year. The initial project for Tia Maria watched Transporting ore to Ilo (distance over 100 km).

cuajone-copper-mine-EPC-4-fw

The Cuajone mine

History of the conflict.

Origin of the conflict

Southern presented the first environmental impact study (EAI) in June 2009, the Peruvian government spent an advisory agreement Then With The United Nations Office for Project monitoring (UNOPS). The UNOPS report seriously reworked the Southern EAI, with no less than 138 observations. . (See link link No. 1 and No. 2).

findings-138

Source ‘UNOPS

Meanwhile the residents of Valle del Tambo defense created a coalition and local consultation organized the 27 September 2009, in Which 90% of the valley’s population was .. Against the project (see link link No 1 et n ° 2).

Despite The failure of Southern EAI, the government of Alan García wanted to launch the project and in 2010 tried to pressure UNOPS to review ITS report (Note That the work of UNOPS, Which is a consulting office With the seal of the UN, was not free, it cost $ 6 million (UNOPS hires experts worldwide and That Is not free).

In March 2011 the Ministry of Energy and Mines rejected este informe (and Its 138 observations, 3 of Which Particularly serious environmental Risks Involved) and broke the Contract with UNOPS (see link). However, the report fell into the hands of a leader of the Front for the Defense of the Tambo Valley, This fact provoked the anger of the farmers in the valley and Demonstrations resumed on March 16, 2011.

INDEFINITE STRIKE BY PROJECT IN Cocachacra TIA MARIA.  PHOTO: PEDRO TORRES - Trome PLACE: THE PROSECUTOR

. STOP BY PROJECT indefinite Cocachacra TIA MARIA
PHOTO: PEDRO TORRES – Trome
PLACE: THE PROSECUTOR

The March 23, 2011 Opponents of the project DECIDED an indefinite strike ( link ), the government sent police reinforcements, reaching 5,000 men (link). The government Declared a state of emergency on March 10-April 27 (Resolution 113-2011 / DE) ( link ) Allowing the armed forces to Participate in the repression. The clashes Quickly Became very violent ( link ) and Against the violence, several mayors of the province DECIDED on a hunger strike.

Report on the project  Video

The police did not hesitate to use firearms, April 4 Taype Choquepuma Andrés died by a bullet in the chest, April 11, 3 people died from gunshot wounds, Aurelio Huarca Puma Nestor Cerezo Patana and Miguel Angel Pino. Then strain fell to the announcement of the suspension of the project. (See  link 1  and link 2 )

November 22, 2010 RESIDENTS PROTEST Islay TIA MARIA OF MINING PROJECT SOUTHERN PERU AREQUIPA.  ROLLY REYNA PHOTO TRADE

November 22, 2010
RESIDENTS PROTEST Islay TIA MARIA OF MINING PROJECT SOUTHERN PERU AREQUIPA.
ROLLY REYNA PHOTO TRADE

In November 2013, Southern returned with a new environmental impact study, Which the government of Ollanta Humala was officially validated in August 2014 ( link ). Tambo population did not trust neither in government nor in Southern and stress Settled in Cocachacra and Islay. The December 19, 2013 in Cocachacra, the Southern and the government organized a public hearing together, Which invited only the supporters of the project (link 1 and link 2), the Opponents Could not even go to the hearing, to 4000 policemen Were There deny them access, Including 1,200 Directly to block access to the building Took place Where the “public” hearing (link). However, the government decreed That the project received the “social license” (link).

tia maria 03

4000 policemen deployed in the province of Islay and in the streets of Cocachacra to “protect” the public hearing on Tia Maria project – in fact to Prevent access of Opponents.

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In March 2015, Southern Announced the start of the project, Whose EAI was officially accepted by the government in August 2014, the population of Tambo, Who has never accepted esta project, Demonstrations resumed.

The latest happenings.

In early March 2015, the government talks About Establishing dialogue meetings, this “roundtable” is not a dialogue, ITS sole purpose is to serve the interests of the government That wants to impose the project, whatever the cost.

image-tia-maria --- up-to-protest-052

Demonstration – Central place of Arequipa

On March 23, Began general strike in the province of Islay, Demonstrations are almost daily and repression intensifies; Victorian Huayna April 22 Nina, a farmer of 61 years, received a bullet in the leg That breaks the femur and the femoral artery, Victorian bleeds to death, on May 5, Henry Checlla Chura, Also dies as a result of a gunshot During a demonstration in Mollendo ( link ). The next day, a police officer of 51 years, Alberto Vasquez Durand, dies of a serious head injury. On May 23, the Peruvian government Decrees a state of emergency for 60 days ( link ), Which formalizes the use of the armed forces in support of the repressive police system, the armed forces Were in the region for more than one month. The state of emergency entails restrictions on the rights of Citizens, Including the right to travel and the right to manifest, a state of emergency Also Allows the use of curfews.

Victorian Huayna Nina

April 22 – Victoriano Huayna Nina has just received a bullet in the thigh, I will die due to bleeding Shortly after

In June, the conflict intensity declines Because the Tambo Valley farmers Their Have to look at crops and in particular must harvest rice. However, the conflict is not over, as the government Instead of seeking calm, undertakes a “witch hunt” against the movement’s leaders and Against the mayors of the villages of the Tambo valley. Pepe Julio Gutierrez, president of the Defence Front of Tambo Valley, one of the main protest leaders, was Sentenced to nine months in prison and Detained at the Penitentiary of Socabaya ( link ).

PEPE CORNEJO JESUS ​​JULIO GUTIERREZ AND DETAINED BY THE COURT IN AREQUIPA

PEPE CORNEJO JESUS ​​JULIO GUTIERREZ AND DETAINED BY THE COURT IN AREQUIPA

Pepe Julio Gutiérrez, at the time of His arrest

Organization and resistance.

The structuring of the Fight Against the mining project was established naturally, in fact 80% of the Tambo valley population are farmers, too, people Have a long experience of the mining Presence in the region in particular, They Have a long experience of Southern and know well the social and environmental irresponsibility of the company. Also, villagers saw the collapse of agriculture in several valleys in the region (including the valleys of the Locumba, Sama and Osmore rivers), All These rivers Have Seen the drastic decline of Their flow, by the combined effects of the global warming and mining, Which not only astronomical Amounts of water consumed, But Also returns it contaminated and unusable.

For farmers in the region, is Necessary to choose Between mining and farming, as it is impossible Such coexistence. Valley Tambo del is the last fertile and productive valley in the region, one of the last oasis of greenery That sustains 13,000 people.

satellital

Satellite view of Tambo Valley, an oasis That sustains 13,000 people

Since the first Threats, ie in 2008, in front of defense was created, Which Became the FDVT later (Defense Front of Tambo Valley), with the main objective of organizing a consultation, the September 27, 2009, over 90% of Valley residents Voted Against the project, the government’s refusal to Consider This popular decision led to the first demonstration on 27 and 28 October 2009. The Defense Front of Tambo Valley is the backbone of the resistance, ITS members are mainly farmers of the valley and Its president Pepe Julio Gutiérrez heads it from the front in 2009 constitution.

It is noteworthy That Pepe Julio Gutiérrez, received Numerous Threats and persecution by the Peruvian government, Allegations of corruption and an attack on December 2, 2010, Which was the subject of an information of APRODEH (Human Rights Organization in Peru) and shared in France by the FIDH ( link ). Today, I is in prison Sentenced to 9 months of detention for a corruption case Known as “lentils” In Which I have is Accused of demanding money to stop Demonstrations Against Southern and for an Alleged flight risk, a convenient news for Southern and government .

But the opposition of farmers is unshakeable and the eventual departure of President of FDVT not Affect the mobilization as esta conflict is not the case of one man, it is an Entire valley, Whose population lives on agriculture, Which Strongly denies to accept esta mining project and as seen in the Demonstrations on July 9 in Arequipa, His determination not Weakened, at the Contrary.

Video: Demonstration in Arequipa During the General Strike on July 9, 2015

Smear Campaigns, manipulation and denigration in the media.

As in January 2014 Against Opponents of the Conga project, the great Peruvian media unleashed a systematic campaign to discredit Opponents of mining projects, the “anti-mining” or “anti-mining” the opposition to mining projects officially Became terrorists ( link 1 and l ink 2 ).

One of the leaders of the opposition to mining projects and founder of Tierra y Libertad, the priest Marco Arana was Described as the successor of Abimael Guzman, founder of the Shining Path ( link ), high clerical hierarchy excluded him from the Church ( link ) Mentioned That Should be the highest authority of the Peruvian Church, Cardinal Cipriani, Archbishop of Lima, is a shareholder of the mining company Yanacocha, THEREFORE, Marco Arana His HAD Been suspended from priestly duties since 2011, following His opposition to the Conga project.

Arana

Marco Arana

A real “witch hunt” triggers Against the leaders and the mayors of the cities of Islay WHO participated or supported the protests. Particularly this is the case of the greater of the municipality of Dean Valdivia, Jaime de la Cruz, Whose election was invalidated, and Also They Threaten him to four years in prison for His opposition to Tia Maria ( link ).

In † n-Jaime Valdivia de la Cruz

Jaime de la Cruz

The press did not hesitate to organize dirty tricks With the police, for example, in the case of Antonio Coasaca Mamani, the police captured a farmer and Placed by force in His hand a pointed object, a photographer for the newspaper “El Correo de Arequipa “was waiting to take a picture of Antonio With the object in His hand and wrote an article With the argument:” the Tia Maria project Opponents are violent and armed “. However, In This case, a person was filming the scene, the video turned into social networks and the scandal broke ( link ).

sowing

Police Placed a sharp object in the hand of Antonio Mamani Coasaca

As in 2014, the press accuses NGOs, Which denounce the abuses and violence of the police, of Being anti-mining and terrorism financing. The campaign in the media Reached Such a point That the European Union ambassador in Lima, Irene Horejs, Had to send a letter of protest to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru ( link and letter ).

The national and international support for the Struggle of the people of Tambo Valley

Of course, many expressions of support for the people of the province of Islay organized in different places, Despite The relative silence of the great international media (for example, in France, nothing in the main national channels (TF1, A2 and FR3) Art only spoke of the problem, simply returning what meat out on German TV.

At the national level, it Should be NOTED, the support from the CUNARC ( link ) and the peasant patrols (rondas), Particularly Those of Cajamarca (living to the same dispute With the company Yanacocha), the CNA (National Agrarian Confederation) ( link ), the Indigenous Communities in the region of Puno and Cusco ( link ), youth Movements, WHO organized several Demonstrations, some harshly repressed, Particularly in Lima ( link ) and of course the support of some leftist political Movements, Such as Earth and Freedom and MAS and some members of Congress, Jorge Rimarachin: such as ( link ) and Veronika Mendoza.

manif Lima

Demonstration of support in Lima

red-Muqui-Cusco-valley-dairy

Demonstration of support in Cusco .

International support meat from Belgium, France, Sweden, Italy, Spain, Germany, USA, we will include, Among Others:

  • The colloquium held in the French Senate on May 22, 2015, on the issue of extractive and devoted a large space to the events That occurred in the province of Islay ( link ).
  • The letter to Ollanta Humala by 19 members of the Swedish Parliament of 29 May 2015.
  • The open letter to Ollanta Humala co-signed by 300 Intellectuals, treats including Noam Chomsky, of June 2, 2015 ( link ).
  • The declaration of the International Network of Trade Union for Solidarity and Struggles (laboursolidarity.org) of June 10, 2015, co-signed by more than hundred Organizations worldwide ( link 1 and link 2 ).

accueil participant colloque

Welcoming Delegates of Peru at the Orly airport – conference in the Senate of France on May 22

Bruxelles

Demonstration in Brussels During the visit of Ollanta Humala, June 10

Berlin

Demonstration of support in Berlin, July 7.

The Tragic Consequences of the Peruvian government’s conflict management ..

7 Killed (4 in 2011 and 3 in 2015), are the tragic That Consequences of the management of esta conflict by successive Peruvian Governments. Behind These Deaths, Hundreds of injured, some sequels keep REMAIN or disabled for life, there are widows and orphans Also.

From north to south it is building solidarity Against mega-mining projects.

The population of the Tambo Valley received the support of many national and international Organizations. Tia Maria is listed as Conga emblematic Among Struggles Against The most destructive megaprojects imposed by force.

All Organisations of Cajamarca Which Fought and Continues to Fight Against the Conga mining megaproject Have supported the fight Against the Tia Maria project, FDAC (Environmental Defense Front of Cajamarca), farmer and peasant patrols Organizations, the CUNARC and the PIC (Platform Inter Celendína) .

Celendin

Demonstration in Celendín on May 27

long banner

The Mamapachapa Unanchan or banner of Mother Earth is the largest green flag in the world, paraded in the streets of Lima in December 2014 During the summit of the peoples, today, Refers to the Struggle of the people of the Tambo valley

Gradually, the resistance is not only longer but Local Becomes a national resistance movement. The government Responds only with the bloody and brutal repression or multiplying states of emergency. Against That, only to national and international mobilization can force the government to retreat. The Fight Against Conga project was the first Having an international dimension, the Fight Against Tia Maria project is the second.

Socio- environmental liabilities and irresponsibility of Southern.

The company owner, Grupo Mexico.

In February 19, 2006, several tunnels in the extraction of coal mine Pasta de Conchos (Coahuila, Mexico) collapsed after a gas explosion, 65 miners Were buried. The research Showed strong negligence on mine safety ( link )

Grupo Mexico Caused one of the worst environmental disasters in the State of Sonora in Mexico, in a copper mine, on August 6 2014, 40,000 m3 of tailings Were discharged into a tributary of the Rio Sonora That was totally contaminated on a distance of more than 200 km, the accident Also contaminated groundwater and more than 300 wells contaminated Were to esta Particularly dramatic situation in dry region ( link ). By now the group evaded ITS Responsibilities, In That Helped by ITS proximity to the Mexican government.

sound

Sonora river pollution

 

In Spain, the Group is Involved in a dark case of Irregularities in the award of the Aznalcollar mine in Andalusia ( link ).

The group is Also Involved in Numerous Violations of labor standards.

The Southern Peruvian subsidiary.

In 2007 the measurements made ​​in the Southern refinery plant in Ilo, esta Showed That plant did not meet the emission standards. Discharges into the sea Contained arsenic levels eight times higher than the standards. , Moreover, smoke Emissions of heavy metals HAD rates much higher than the standards. Southern was Sentenced in 2015 (8 years after the fact and in middle of conflict for the Tia Maria project) to pay an amount of one million dollars, also, the judgment Mentioned a prison sentence of 2 years Against STIs president ( link ), yet , His political supports allowed him to avoid the sentence ( link ).

Refiner ° to-Ilo-Photo-La-Dominican Republic £

Southern refining plant in Ilo

Several studies in the region show a sharp Increase in respiratory diseases and air pollution in Ilo since the establishment of the Southern refinery plant ( link )

Since the beginning of STI activities in Peru the company has Already Been Convicted fifteen times per serious environmental liabilities, but The most serious is the destruction of agriculture by the water depletion and pollution. In fact, large-scale mining requires astronomical Amounts of good quality water, the region of Arequipa is a dry region (see satellite images) Entirely That depends on the Andean aquifers.

The Southern two mines produced more than 300,000 tons of copper per year, Which About IMPLIES to consumption of 60 million m3 of water per year (2 m3 per second) as minimum. Such consumption in a region That Is Already in water stress, is a complete madness; Already Southern is responsible for the decline of agricultural activities in the valleys of the region of Mocquegua. The decrease in river flows Also causes a concentration of pollutants linked to the enormous Amounts of mining waste (tailings) (About 900 million tons per year), Which Generates Southern.

This problem of water shortage Makes That agriculture is increasingly difficult, This problem Associated With The Consequences and environmental pollution on human health related to mining are the main components of the conflict. Do not forget That a fourth project of the same kind is under negotiation in the region, it is the Quellaveco project and It could begin in the next two years (Depending on Negotiations Between Southern and Anglo American).

 

Conclusion

The Peruvian government concepts on democracy.

First, we must examine the concepts of democracy in Peru Currently in application, since His election in 2011, the government of Ollanta Humala has Strengthened in a incredible way the tools of repression, Including Through the adoption of legislation: such as the law No 30151 of January 13, 2014 That exempts from criminal policemen Responsibility If These policemen even cause serious injury or death During Their operations. The 214 social Conflicts That Have marked the government of Ollanta Humala Caused the death of 57 peoples, social Conflicts of These 214, 118 are strictly socio-environmental Conflicts and MOST of These Caused 57 Deaths (over 40).

Also, think in true democratic will of a government, Which officially used 3 times the state of emergency (Cajamarca in 2011 and 2012 Islay in 2015) and used it informally Also in seven Departments (Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna) With the resolution No. 118-2015-IN of May 26, 2015.

Also we remember That the Peruvian government Declared That it would not neither of the precautionary Implement Measures Requested by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH), Measures for the precautionary Opponents of the mining project Conga, decisions issued in 2014 and 2015 respectively and That are available at the following link (records MC MC 452/11 and 530/14).

Finally, strange conception of democracy, When People Who to criminalize protest government Against the projects imposed by force, When democratically Elected mayors and regional presidents are sent to jail, Because They Have the bad thought to disapprove the will of the government center

The concepts of the Peruvian government in environmental matters

YOU CAN ALSO CONSIDER the attitude, AT LEAST strange, of the Peruvian government on the issue of environment, That a government hosted the World Climate Conference, the COP20 in December 2014, and has never spared His Efforts to remove all legal barriers Against environmental destruction , Including multiple “paquetazos” (name Given To these “packages” of Measures to Encourage Investment) issued by the Peruvian government in 2014 (Law 30.230) and 2015 (3941 Act) Which totally ignore people living in the Concessions, That do not take into account the environmental destruction and the health protection and reduces the environmental impact studies (EIA) of the projects to mere formalities.

Note That These packages of Measures violate the rights of Indigenous Peoples, ILO Convention No. 169 Including Peru That Ratified in 1994 and the 2007 Declaration of the UN on the rights of native peoples. Finally, These Measures do not Comply with the UN Declaration of 2010 on the rights to water and sanitation and the constitutional rights of the Peruvian people to a healthy and unpolluted environment.

From the COP20 to the cop21, from Peru to France.

That, Although the three visits made to France President Humala His election Have since gone virtually unnoticed in the French press, relations Between Apparently France and Peru are rosy. President François Hollande himself, Moreover HAD planned to travel to Peru in January 2015, but That trip was frustrated by the terrorist attacks in Paris in this month of January.

Humala hollande

The Peruvian president Ollanta Humala and the French president François Hollande

If French companies are not Directly Involved in mining, They are Indirectly Through engineering and services and in particularly large dam projects (especially mining for feeding with energy). French Multinationals are very present in the field of oil exploitation in the Amazon (Perenco, Maurel & Prom). But is the Most Significant collaboration Between the French police and gendarmerie forces, cooperation Began in 2012 and includes training services and weapon sales and even helicopters (EC145 in France sold in May 2012).

Training and arms sales to police forces totaly Exempted of prosecution and who does not hesitate to use firearms in Their operations of protesters’ repression.

But François Hollande does not pose Such questions,, Moreover, Also received the President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, as guest of honor at the celebrations of the French national day esta July 14, 2015. Coincidence, President Humala received and honored President Peña Nieto in Lima on July 2, probably, Francois Hollande and Enrique Peña Nieto other topics of conversation HAD That the 43 students of the Normal school Ayotzinapa WHO Disappeared 10 months ago and the other Thousands of Killed and Disappeared in Mexico.

Humala worth

The presidents of Mexico Enrique Peña Nieto and Peru Ollanta Humala Tasso

Strange, but where are the goals for the cop21? For now, there is still another analogy With Peru, as the COP20 in Lima, the cop21 in Paris will be held behind closed doors in an isolated spot (Le Bourget), only duly accredited persons Where Shall Be ADMITTED for UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). There will be no banners or untimely boisterous Demonstrators, only well-dressed ladies and gentlemen and “handpicked” people, a meeting of “gentlemen”.

While “gentemen” are preparing to quietly discuss climate change in Paris, at 11000 km from Paris, small farmers, Both North and South of Peru, continue to Struggle With courage and determination to survive Against That a government wants to remove them and replace them with a much more profitable activity in the short term, but That has no future. This brave and unequal Struggle, it is our duty to support it and make it KNOWN, as farmers of Cajamarca or Tambo Valley do not Contribute to Global warming, UNLIKE the destructive extractive model That the Peruvian government is trying to impose by force.

 

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Ecuador: NO to mining in the rainforest #LibertadparaJavierRamirez
Yaigojé Apaporis – conocimiento tradicional, el corazón en proteger la Amazonia Colombiana
Yaigojé Apaporis – traditional knowledge at the heart of protecting the Colombian Amazon
Territories Free of Mining on the Rise in Honduras
In Solidarity – En Solidaridad

In Solidarity – En Solidaridad

  • Written on: 11 December 2014
  • Posted under: Videos
Máxima versus the U.S. mining conglomerate in Peru
Campaign Against Oil Exploitation in Peru: Pastaza Film

Campaign Against Oil Exploitation in Peru: Pastaza Film

  • Written on: 14 November 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
United in resistance – Letters spark solidarity across continents
Agriculture: Our Hope For the Future. An Interview with Mariana Gomez
Yaigoje Apaporis, threatened by gold mining in Colombia
We Can’t Drink Oil: Indigenous Peoples of Peru Speak Out