El pronunciamiento de la Corte Constitucional Colombiana que puede cambiar la historia del Amazonas

Yaigojé-Apaporis: Colombian Constitutional Court decision to reject mining could change the history of the Amazon

Después de cinco años de incertidumbre legal, la Corte Constitucional de Colombia finalmente deja en claro que un Parque Nacional prevalece sobre un título minero. Esta victoria de la naturaleza y los pueblos indígenas marca un precedente en defensa del territorio para comunidades alrededor del mundo!

IMG_1811

 

En nuestros tiempos de devastación del mundo natural que nos rodea, con excepción de los indígenas, la naturaleza h a dejado de expresar lo sagrado (Cashford 2011). La reciente decisión tomada por la Corte Constitucional de Colombia de alguna manera honra esta sacralidad, que fue expresada por los Makuna, Tanimula, Letuama, Barasano, Cabiyari, Yahuna y Yujup-Makú, habitantes del Resguardo Yaigojé-Apaporis, hace cinco años cuando se abrió este proceso legal. Estos grupos indígenas solicitaron al gobierno colombiano la creación de un área protegida para evitar que la compañía canadiense Cosigo Mining Resources extrajera el oro de su territorio.

Apaporis2_40x30

Mapa del Resguardo Yaigojé-Apaporis / Parque Nacional Natural Yaigojé Apaporis (Fundación Gaia Amazonas, 2014).

Situado en el corazón del Noreste Amazónico colombiano, el Yaigojé guarda bosques prístinos habitados por millones de especies que disfrutan de la generosidad de la tierra[1]. Este resguardo se conoce como parte del complejo cultural Vaupés, en el cual todos los grupos comparten un territorio mítico y mantienen valores culturales y espirituales que son coherentes con aquello que en Occidente hemos denominado “conservación” (PNN YAP 2014). Por esta razón, cuando la compañía canadiense visitó las malocas[2] ofreciendo dinero a los líderes intentando que aceptaran su interés de extraer el oro de uno de sus lugares sagrados[3] más importantes, La Libertad o Yuisi/Yuika[4], se resistieron.

Después de una larga búsqueda de apoyo al gobierno y de episodios legales, la Corte finalmente dio su última palabra la semana pasada al ordenar la suspensión inmediata de las actividades mineras en la región. A pesar de que el estatus legal de los Parques Nacionales prohíbe la minería y otras actividades extractivas que amenace la integridad del ecosistema, en la práctica estas cosas no estaban tan claras. Mirar hacia atrás a algunos de los episodios más importantes de esta historia ayudará a esclarecer la secuencia de sucesos y resaltará la importancia que este caso a cobrado tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

Una mirada atrás

Cuando la compañía comenzó a visitar a las comunidades, los líderes tradicionales se motivaron a llamar a todos los líderes y capitanes de la región a un Congreso de Autoridades Tradicionales de ACIYA[5] con urgencia, en donde expresaron las amenazas que esta iniciativa representa, no solo para la preservación de su territorio, sino para el balance del planeta. Se considera que los minerales en el subsuelo son como “lentes” que les permite mirar el estado de la Tierra a los tradicionales, así que si el oro fuese a ser extraído de este lugar sagrado, perderían la capacidad de curar y manejar su territorio con el pensamiento.

Apaporis_40x30_Mineria

Mapa del título otorgado a Cosigo Resources en el Yaigojé-Apaporis (Fundación Gaia Amazonas, 2014).

Con el apoyo de asesores, los indígenas solicitaron al gobierno la creación de un Parque Nacional[6] sobre su territorio, pues esta es la única categoría de ordenamiento territorial en el país que protege el subsuelo. “Sabíamos que el Resguardo solo protege 50 cts. de suelo, el espacio que ocupa la raíz de la yuca, pero que de ahí para abajo le pertenece al gobierno”, dice un líder tradicional. El traslape de estas dos figuras se basa en la compatibilidad entre un Parque Nacional y un Resguardo Indígena, y la incompatibilidad entre estas y las actividades mineras, y representa un desafío para la coordinación entre la autoridad pública y las autoridades tradicionales[7] (PNN YAP 2014).

“Nosotros los líderes tradicionales entendimos que necesitábamos una doble protección”

IMG_1835

A pesar de que esta iniciativa nació de la autodeterminación de las comunidades, hubo dos situaciones que hicieron de este caso el Avatar colombiano. Un título minero fue otorgado a la compañía Cosigo dos días después de la declaración del Parque Nacional y una tutela fue interpuesta en contra de Parques Nacionales manifestando que la creación del área protegida atenta contra derechos fundamentales como la identidad cultural y el derecho al consentimiento previo, libre e informado garantizado por la Consulta Previa[8]. Esta tutela fue interpuesta por los representantes de ACITAVA[9], la asociación indígena de las comunidades que viven en la otra margen del río[10]. La presencia de la compañía en la región causó división y confusión entre los indígenas al persuadir su apoyo de los ofreciéndoles dinero y puestos de trabajo.

Una audiencia pública se llevó a cabo en Enero de 2014 en la comunidad de Centro Providencia, la cual fue clave para la decisión de la Corte ya que los magistrados viajaron al corazón del Amazonas a escuchar las voces de los líderes mayores tradicionales y sus puntos de vista. Los líderes de ACITAVA admitieron haber recibido dinero y asesoría por parte de la empresa minera para interponer el proceso legal en contra de la creación del área protegida, y los jueces de la Corte Suprema reconocieron que el proceso de la consulta previa había sido llevado a cabalidad por parte de PNN antes de declarar el área, y que había respetado la voluntad de las comunidades así como confirmado la incompatibilidad de estas figuras con la minería (PNN YAP 2014).

Elementos de una victoria

El pronunciamiento de la corte garantiza que la declaración del Área Protegida fue legítima, ordena la suspensión de cualquier actividad minera en la región y la investigación a la empresa. Los magistrados encontraron suficiente evidencia para pedirle al Ministerio de Justicia que abra un caso respecto al comportamiento de la empresa y su participación indebida en el proceso de la consulta previa de las comunidades. En el año 2013 el gobierno publicó una lista de Proyectos de Interés Nacional que incluía el proyecto de Cosigo, junto con otros proyectos de minería e infraestructura. La publicación de esta lista estaba basada en el Código de Minas, el cual dicta la minería como una actividad de interés nacional, lo que quiere decir que estos proyectos son prioridad para todo el país. La lista fue publicada nuevamente hace poco, y el proyecto de Cosigo ya no está incluido.

La sentencia es enfática en reconocer que fueron los mismos líderes indígenas quienes solicitaron la creación del área protegida, y los reconoce como autoridades legítimas. Reconoce también que este proceso no amenaza derechos fundamentales como la identidad cultural, sino que al contrario, promueve su preservación. Este pronunciamiento reconoce que la Consulta Popular fue realizada en todas las comunidades del resguardo y honora la compatibilidad entre las prácticas indígenas y la forma de vida tradicional con la conservación del medio ambiente.

La Sentencia de la Corte así mismo confirma la compatibilidad de un Resguardo Indígena, una Reserva Forestal y un Parque Nacional, y la necesidad de que las autoridades tradicionales y las autoridades ambientales coordinen la administración y el manejo de este territorio. Como resultado de este proceso, 27 indígenas de 9 comunidades[11] del Resguardo Yaigojé-Apaporis se han convertido en investigadores locales y líderes culturales, quienes están realizando una investigación sobre el manejo tradicional del territorio a partir del conocimiento de los mayores[12]. Esta será la base para la definición de un manejo e instrumento conjunto formulado desde el punto de vista tradicional que será legítimo y reconocido por Parques Nacionales para la administración del área. Este ejercicio de investigación local recibió el premio Iniciativa Ecuatorial de la Agencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo en año pasado. Uno de los líderes locales viajó a la ciudad de Nueva York a recibir el premio y volcó los ojos del mundo hacia este caso inspirador del Noreste Amazónico Colombiano.

IMG_2039

Los sistemas de conocimiento local han estado basados en la capacidad del bosque tropical para sostener la vida, no en su valor comercial (Shiva 2012). Como Martín von Hildebrand, fundador de la Fundación Gaia Amazonas señala, “las comunidades indígenas son nuestros aliados naturales para el movimiento ambiental y para proteger la selva, pero debemos entender que los aliados necesitan de nuestra reciprocidad” (2015).

“No creo que seamos capaces de proteger el Amazonas sin ayuda de los pueblos indígenas. Si queremos protegerlo, no existe manera de que podamos instalar a 200 a 500 mil guardabosques, entrenarlos y mantenerlos allí para proteger el bosque, en cambio las comunidades ya están allí, tienen el conocimiento tradicional necesario para protegerlo y ya están organizadas. Lo mejor que podemos hacer es apoyarlas con lo que necesitan para poder manejar su territorio, y ellas cumplirán este rol. No se trata de volverlos guardabosques, sino de reconocer que en su cosmología y conocimiento del bosque están las claves para la conservación de este ecosistema. Pero si necesitan apoyo del gobierno. Si se les deja solas, estas comunidades buscarán satisfacer sus necesidades, como cualquier otro grupo humano, y si el gobierno no está dispuesto a darles una mano, encontraremos que las comunidades y otros grupos tanto legales como ilegales les tenderán una mano, y este conocimiento se revertirá en contra de nuestra búsqueda por conservar el bosque, en lugar de estar a favor de nosotros” dice Martín von Hildebrand en una entrevista el pasado 13 de abril de 2015.

Notas:

1 A pesar del buen estado del ecosistema en esta área, esté se encuentra bajo varias amenazas y presiones además de la minería. Una de las principales amenazas son los cultivos ilícitos como la coca, pues al norte del parque se encuentran grandes extensiones de cultivos para la producción de cocaína para ser comercializada por Brasil. Estos cultivos requieren el uso de fertilizantes y pesticidas químicos. Otras de las principales amenazas y presiones en la región son la minería ilegal, la industria pesquera y la expansión de la frontera agrícola (PNN YAP 2015).

2 Malocas: grandes casas comunitarias tradicionales en el río.

3 1580 sitios sagrados han sido identificados en el territorio por los indígenas y son clasificados de acuerdo al uso y manejo que estos requieren.

4 “Yuisi es la cuna de nuestro pensamiento, de nuestra vida y nuestro poder. Todo lo que existe nace aquí en pensamiento: la naturaleza, los cultivos, árboles, frutas, todo lo que existe, existe primero en pensamiento” (líderes tradicionales).

[5] ACIYA (Asociación de Capitanes Indígenas del Yaigojé-Apaporis) y ACITAVA (Asociación de Capitanes Indígenas de Taraira Vaupés) son AATIS, Asociaciones de Autoridades Tradicionales Indígenas del Amazonas, que son reconocidas por el gobierno como autoridades públicas especiales por el Decreto 1088 de 1993. Desde 2001 estas asociaciones sostienen una Mesa Permanente de Coordinación para trabajar temas que conciernen a toda la Amazonía. Estas dos son las asociaciones de comunidades y líderes a quienes les pertenece el Resguardo Yaigojé Apaporis. ACITAVA fue creada recientemente con el apoyo de asesores financiados por Cosigo, la empresa minera.

[6] En febrero de 2008 durante una reunión de ACIYA, los líderes tradicionales expresaron su preocupación sobre el impacto de actividades económicas sobre sus sitios sagrados y decidieron acudir a Parques Nacionales Naturales para pedir apoyo en la protección de su territorio mediante la creación de este como Parque Nacional. El 17 de marzo de 2008 una declaración fue enviada a Parques Nacionales firmada por 17 capitanes de ACIYA solicitando la declaratoria del Parque Nacional para avanzar con el proceso de “garantizar la protección de los valores culturales asociados a la naturaleza para la manutención de diversidad biológica y cultural del país y garantizar la oferta de bienes y servicios ambientales esenciales para el bienestar humano” (Acuerdo Interadministrativo No. 003A, PNN YAP2014). El Parque Nacional finalmente fue declarado el 27 de Octubre de 2009 (Resolución 2079) después de un largo proceso de participación de todas las comunidades del Resguardo en la construcción del acuerdo.

[7] Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia basa su ejercicio en un paradigma de conservación que reconoce la presencia de grupos tradicionales en las áreas protegidas bajo el lema de “Parques con la gente”, y sostiene una serie de políticas que viabilizan la compatibilidad de estas figuras, tales como la Política de Participación Social en la Conservación. El instrumento diseñado para la administración de áreas protegidas traslapadas con resguardos indígenas es el REM (Régimen Especial de Manejo), con el propósito de construir un plan especial de manejo para el territorio que parte del punto de vista tradicional y es formulado entre las autoridades gubernamentales representadas en PNN y las autoridades tradicionales representadas por ACIYA.

[8] Colombia reconoce el derecho de los pueblos indígenas al territorio y el gobierno propio en la Constitución Política de 1991, y es país firmante del Convenio 169 de la OIT, el cual obliga al gobierno a garantizar el derecho al consentimiento previo, libre e informado mediante la Consulta Previa. Este requerimiento se cumplió por parte de PNN ante de declarar la creación del Parque Yaigojé-Aapaporis, pero fue utilizada como una excusa para interponer la tutela en contra de la creación del Parque diciendo que no se había realizado en todas las comunidades del resguardo. Funcionarios de PNN y líderes tradicionales visitaron todas las comunidades entre el 3 al 29 de octubre de 2008 y el proceso formal de la Consulta Previa inició el 4 de Julio y concluyó el 20 de Julio del año 2009.

[9] La Sala Jurisdiccional Disciplinaria del Consejo Seccional de Judicatura de Cundinamarca declaró esta acción de tutela como improcedente el 20 de enero de 2010, ratificando la compatibilidad entre el PNN y el Resguardo Indígena y la construcción de un instrumento de manejo conjunto, y el 25 de Marzo la misma Sala resolvió la impugnación presentada por ACIYA mediante un fallo de tutela (PNN YAP 2014).

[10] ACIYA asocia a las comunidades asentadas en el margen Amazonas del río Apaporis, y ACITAVA a las comunidades asentadas en el margen Vaupés.

[11] Las nueve comunidades son: Puerto Cordillera, Bellavista, Awaurita, Bocas del Pirá – Gente Leña, Bocas del Pirá – Makuna, Bocas de Ugá, La Playa, Centro Providencia y Jirijirimo.

[12] En la región se hablan más de cinco idiomas, y más de ocho grupos étnicos comparten principios y valores culturales, con algunos elementos diferenciadores como rituales y calendarios.

After five years of legal uncertainty, the Colombian Constitutional court finally made clear that a National Park prevails over a mining title. A victory for nature and indigenous peoples and a precedent in defense of territory for communities all around the world!

IMG_1811

In our time of devastation in the natural world around us, with the exception of indigenous people, nature is rarely expressed as sacred (Cashford 2011). The recent decision taken by the Colombian Constitutional Court honoured this sacredness, expressed by the Makuna, Tanimuka, Letuama, Barasano, Cabiyari, Yahuna and Yujup-Maku, inhabitants of the Yaigojé-Apaporis Indigenous Resguardo (collective land tittle granted to the Indigenous communities), five years ago when this legal case was opened. Indigenous leaders asked the Colombian Government for the creation of a Protected Area in order to prevent Canadian Corporation Cosigo Mining Resources to exploit gold in their land.

Apaporis2_40x30

Map of the Yaigojé-Apaporis Reservoir / National Park (Fundacion Gaia Amazonas, 2014).

Situated in the heart of the Northeastern Colombian Amazon, it holds pristine forests inhabited by millions of species that enjoy the generosities of the abundant Earth[1]. This reservoir is know to be part of the cultural complex of the Vaupés region, where all the groups share a mythical territory, and hold cultural and spiritual values that are coherent with what in the west we have defined as conservation (PNN YAP 2014). For this reason, when the Canadian corporation visited the malocas[2], offering money to the leaders in order for them to accept their interest in extracting gold from one of their most important sacred sites[3], La Libertad or Yuisi/Yuika[4], they refused.

After a long search for governmental support and legal episodes, the Court finally gave its last word the past week when ordering the immediate suspension of mining activities in the region. Even though the Colombian legal status of National Parks prohibits mining and other extractive activities, in the practice things where not so clear. Looking back at some of the important episodes in this story may clear out the sequence of happenings and give strength to the importance this case has gained in the country as well as internationally.

Looking back

When the company started visiting the communities, traditional authorities were motivated to call leaders and captains to an urgent Congress of Traditional Authorities of ACIYA[5], where they expressed the danger this initiative represented, not only for the preservation of their territory, but to the balance of the planet. They believe minerals are like “lenses” for the elders to be able to look at the state of the Earth within her, so if this gold were to be removed from this sacred place; they would loose their ability to cure and to manage the territory with their thoughts.

Apaporis_40x30_Mineria

Cosigo Resources mining title in the Yaigojé-Apaporis area (Gaia Amazonas Foundation, 2014).

With support and guidance of advisors, they requested the government for the creation of the National Park[6] over their territory, for it is the only territorial zoning category in the country that protects the subsoil. “We knew that the Resguardo only protected 50cmts of soil, the space that the root of the manioc occupies, below that point it belongs to the government”, say traditional leaders. The overlapping of these two figures is based on the compatibility between the National Park and the Indigenous Resguardo, and an incompatibility between these and mining activities, and represents a challenge for the coordination between public and traditional authorities[7] (PNN YAP 2014).

“We traditional leaders understood that we needed a double protection”

IMG_1835

In spite of the fact that this initiative was born from the indigenous community’s self-determination, there were two situations that turned this case into the Colombian ‘Avatar’. A mining title was granted to Cosigo Resources two days after the National Park was declared and it had not been revoked until now, and a tutelage was placed against the National Parks office complaining that the creation of the protected area infringed upon the fundamental rights to cultural identity and to the due process of previous, free and informed right granted by the Previous Consultation[8]. This tutelage was placed by the representatives of ACITAVA[9], an indigenous association of communities that inhabit this region on the other margin of the river[10]. The presence of the company on the region caused confusion offering money and promising jobs, diving the communities.

A public hearing was held in January 2014 in Centro Providencia, which was decisive for the decision of the Court because the judges traveled to the heart of the Amazon to listen to the elder´s voices and points of view. The leaders from ACITAVA admitted they had received money from the company to hold this legal process against the declaration of the protected area, and the judges of the Supreme Court recognized the previous consultation process had been legally completed by PNN before declaring the protected area, and had respected their own will and the incompatibility of it with mining activities (PNN YAP 2014).

The elements of victory

The court´s statement guarantees that the declaration of the protected area was legitimate and it orders the suspension of mining activities in the region and the investigation of the company. The judges found enough evidence to ask the Justice Minister to open a case regarding the behavior of the company and their improper participation in the previous consultation process of the communities. In 2013 the government published a list of Projects of National Interest were the Cosigo mining project was included, together with other mining and infrastructure projects. This list was based on the Mining Code of Colombia that states that mining is of national interest, meaning these projects were priority. The list has recently been republished and the Cosigo project was taken out of it.

The sentence is emphatic in recognizing that it was the proper indigenous leaders who requested the creation of the protected area, and that they are legitimate authorities and for this does not threaten fundamental rights such as identity, but in the contrary, it aids for its preservation. This pronouncement recognizes that the popular consultation was done in all the communities in the Resguardo as well and it honors the compatibility of the indigenous practices and ways of living with the conservation of the environment.

The Court´s sentence confirms the compatibility of an Indigenous Resguardo, a Forest Reserve and a National Park, and the need for the traditional authorities and the environmental authorities to coordinate the administration and management of this territory. As a result of this process, 27 locals from 9 communities[11] of the Yaigojé-Apaporis Resguardo have become local researchers and cultural leaders who are developing research exercises about the traditional management model of the land, advised by the elders[12]. This will be the base for the definition of a management and coordination instrument made from the traditional point of view that will be legitimate and recognized by the National Park for its administration. This local research exercise won the UNDP Equator Initiative Prize last year. Local leaders traveled to NYC to receive it and turned the eyes of the world towards this inspiring case in a corner of the Northeastern Colombian Amazon.

IMG_2039

Local knowledge systems have been based on the life-support capacities of the tropical forest, not on their commercial value (Shiva 2012). As Martin von Hildebrand, founder of Gaia Amazonas Foundation “The indigenous people are the natural allies for the whole environmental movement and all protect the rainforest, but we have to understand they are allies and allies need reciprocity” (2015).

I dont think we can protect the Amazon without the indigenous people. If we want to protect it, there is no way that we can set up 200, 500 thousand forest guards, train them and have them down there to protect it, but the communities are already there, they have the traditional knowledge, they are organized. We just have to support them with what they need to run their own territories, and they will fulfill the role. It is not their role to hold the position of forest guards, but because of their cosmology and their knowledge of the forest, they are not going to cut it down, but they do need support from the government. If they are left on their own because they have needs, like everybody, and of the government is not willing to give them a hand we will find companies and other people legal or illegal willing to give them a hand, and then that knowledge will turn against us, instead of being in favor of us” said Martin von Hildebrand during an interview the past 13th of April, 2015.

Notes:

1 In spite of the good state of the ecosystem in this area, there are great threats to the ecosystem beyond mining. One of the largest threats are the illicit crops, like coca. Farther north, there are big crops and labs where the cocaine is produced and to be commercialized through in Brazil. The crops have big extensions and so require chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Some other threats and pressures the region is facing are: illegal mining, fishing industries and the expansion of the agricultural colonization frontier (PNN YAP 2015).

2 Malocas: Traditional houses on the river.

3 1580 sacred sites have been identified in this territory, and are classified according to the use and management these should be given.

4 “Yuisi is the crib of our way of thinking, of life and power. Everything is born here in thought: nature, the crops, trees, fruits, everything that exists, exists before in thought” (traditional leaders ).

[5] ACIYA (Association of Indigenous Captains of Yaigojé-Apaporis) and ACITAVA (Association of Indigenous Captains of Taraira Vaupés) are AATIS, Associations of Traditional Indigenous Authorities of the Amazon region, which are recognized by the hegemonic government as legitimate authorities, created by Decree 1088 of 1993. Since 2001 these associations hold a Permanent Coordination Table to work on topics concerning the entire Amazon region. These are the two associations of communities and leaders that live and own the Yaigojé-Apaporis indigenous reservoir. ACITAVA was recently created with the support of advisors sponsored by Cosigo, the mining company.

[6] In February 2008 during a meeting of ACIYA the traditional leaders spoke about their concern for the impact of economical activities on their sacred sites and decide to approach PNN´s help for the protection of their land by declaring it a National Park. The 17th of March 2008 a declaration was sent to the National Parks, office signed by 17 Captains (how they call the political leaders of the communities) of ACIYA requesting the declaration of the protected area. The 23rd of June 2008, PNN and ACIYA signed the first agreement for the declaration of the National Park in order to advance with the process “to guarantee the protection of the cultural values associated to nature for the maintenance of the biological and cultural diversity of the country and to guarantee the supply of goods and environmental services which are essential for the human wellbeing” (Inter-administrative Agreement No. 003A, PNN YAP 2014). The National Park was finally declared on 27th of October of 2009 (Resolution 2079) after the long process of participating all the communities in the Reservoir and building an agreement.

[7] The Colombian National Parks agency is based in a conservation paradigm, which recognizes the presence of these groups in the protected areas with its slogan “Parks with People”, and holds the policies, which enable this compatibility, like the Social Participation in Conservation Policy. The instrument designed for the administration of protected areas overlapped with indigenous territories is called REM (Special Management Regime), with the purpose of building a special management plan for the territory, which includes the traditional point of view and is designed between both the governmental authorities represented by PNN (Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia) and the traditional authorities represented by ACIYA (Association of Indigenous Captains of the Yaigojé-Apaporis).

[8] Colombia recognizes the right of indigenous groups to land and to their own government in the Political Constitution of 1991, and signed the 169 ILO Convention, which obligates the government to guarantee the right to the due process of previous, free and informed right granted by the Previous Consultation. This requirement was met by PNN before declaring the PNN YAP, but was used as an alibi to sue the creation of the protected area by saying it was done incomplete. PNN officers and traditional leaders visited all the communities in October 3-29 2008 and the official process for the Previous Consultation started on the 4th of July and ended the 20th of 2009.

[9] The Council declared this tutelage unfair on the 20th of January of 2010 ratifying the compatibility between a PNN and an Indigenous Resguardo, and the joint construction between the two parts, and the Superior Council determined impugnation by failure against the tutelage presented by ACITAVA on the 25th of March 2010. (PNN YAP 2014).

[10] ACIYA associates the communities located in the Amazon State and ACITAVA those located in the Vaupés State.

[11] The nine communities are: Puerto Cordillera, Bellavista, Awaurita, Bocas del Pirá – Gente Leña, Bocas del Pirá – Makuna, Bocas de Ugá, La Playa, Centro Providencia and Jirijirimo.

[12] More than five languages are spoken in this region, and more than eight ethnic groups share common principles and values, with differentiating elements, rituals, traditions and seasons.

Related Posts

Urgent call to save the Nangaritza River and the Condor Mountain Range:  Ecuador under threat
LEAKAGES, POLLUTION AND SILENCED GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS in Jachal, Argentina
Press Release: Frontline defenders travel to London to counter Mines and Money conference between 25-30 November
The Dark Side of Digitalization: Will Industry 4.0 Create New Raw Materials Demands? 
New Report – UN Body Urges Mining Companies To Put Safety First
Press-release on the Outrage against environmental leaders in Cajamarca, Colombia – By the Youth Socio-environmental collective group of Cajamarca COSAJUCA 
Jachal, Argentina states it will not allow a covenant with darkness
Jericó and Támesis: Colombian municipalities find new ways to stay mining-free
Cumaral, Meta: Another resounding victory for life, land & water in Colombia
POLITICAL DECLARATION FOR THE IX MARCHA CARNAVAL IN DEFENSE OF WATER, LIFE AND TERRITORY
SOUTHWEST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA, IN ALERT FOR LARGE-SCALE MINING
Cumarál to hold popular consultation on oil extraction in Andes foothills
Press Release: Apple’s Commitment to a No-Mining Future Makes Deep Sea Mining Unnecessary
Apple promises to stop mining minerals to make iPhones — it just isn’t sure how yet
A New Spill of Cyanide Solution in Jáchal, Argentina takes villagers to request a Popular Consultation
The women behind El Salvador’s historic environmental victory- AWID
Colossal Result in Cajamarca, Colombia Regarding Mining: building on the debate
Cajamarca: Central Colombian town bans ‘world’s largest open pit goldmine’
¿Cuáles son los efectos de la consulta popular en Cajamarca?
Resistance, exchange, (post)extractivism: YLNM Coordinators meet in Galicia- in photos
Safeguarding People and the Environment in Chinese Investments- A guide for community advocactes
Cabrera: New Popular Consultation wins over mining in Colombia
On International Women’s Day, Honoring Women Land and Human Rights Defenders
YLNM joins ContraMINAcción to celebrate third Meeting on Impacts of Mining, in Galicia
Community Mapping & Resistance Ghana

Community Mapping & Resistance Ghana

  • Written on: 03 February 2017
  • Posted under: Videos
No to the plunder of our territories! Yes to ICCAs— territories of life!
Breaching environmental boundaries: UN report on resource limits
Breaching environmental boundaries: UN report on resource limits
Being Human: Death, Development and Earth’s Defenders
Beneath the surface: Practical films to help communities fight mining
BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR PROTECTING YOUR COMMUNITY FROM EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
No fracking, drilling or digging: it’s the only way to save life on Earth
The Sky’s Limit: Why the Paris Climate Goals Require a Managed Decline of Fossil Fuel Production
World Conservation Congress Approves Historic Measure To Protect Indigenous Sacred Lands
Standing Rock protests: this is only the beginning
Protecting Your Community from Mining and Other Extractive Industries
ICC widens remit to include environmental destruction cases
Beautiful Rising

Beautiful Rising

Post-Growth and Post-Extractivism: Two Sides of the Same Cultural Transformation
Colombia: Support the people of Ibague to have their say on mining!
Global Day Against Mega Mining: 4 Inspiring Stories of Resistance
Report: On Dangerous Ground- record number of environmental defenders killed in 2015
‘Responsible Extractives Summit’: Sick Joke or Serious Indictment of Industry?
Infographic: Tailings Dumping in Water Systems
Why Mining Corporations Love Trade Deals

Why Mining Corporations Love Trade Deals

TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE, RESTORE LAND OWNERSHIP TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
REPORT: ON DANGEROUS GROUND, 3 Environmental Defenders killed every day defending their lands
2015 was the worst year on record for killings of land and environmental defenders
Three Environmental Defenders Killed Every Week in 2015
Call to action: Global Day Against Mega Mining 2016
Gender and the extractive industries: putting gender on the corporate agenda
NETWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMMITTEES IN TOLIMA CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT OVER DEATH THREATS
Resource Roulette: How Deep Sea Mining and Inadequate Regulatory Frameworks Imperil the Pacific and its Peoples
Report: Investment Court System put to the test
#VideoAsEvidence

#VideoAsEvidence

  • Written on: 13 May 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Video As Evidence: Field Guide | Witness Recursos
Disobedience

Disobedience

  • Written on: 03 May 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
The Journey of Coal from Colombia to Italy: The Curse of Extractivism
Latin American organizations hope for stronger accountability of Canadian mining overseas
Even the ‘Good’ Gold Mines Are Pretty Bad
Case Studies – Inspiring Stories from the Frontlines of Climate Change
Minando la Agricultura (Resumen)
Minando la Agricultura – Infografía
(Report) Mining: Enough is Enough
In Defence of Life

In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Sister Stella Matutina – In Defence of Life

Sister Stella Matutina – In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Nnimmo Bassey – In Defence of Life

Nnimmo Bassey – In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Stephan Harding – In Defence of Life

Stephan Harding – In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Mariana Gomez Soto – In Defence of Life

Mariana Gomez Soto – In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Vandana Shiva – In Defence of Life

Vandana Shiva – In Defence of Life

  • Written on: 18 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Impacts of Mining: Gendered Impacts

Impacts of Mining: Gendered Impacts

  • Written on: 08 April 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Water is Life: Don’t UnderMine It

Water is Life: Don’t UnderMine It

  • Written on: 22 March 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Report: UnderMining the Water Cycle
Study: Human Rights Risks in Mining
Common Ground: Securing Land Rights and Safeguarding the Earth
Ibagué will be the first city in the world to take mining to public scrutiny
Global patterns of metal extractivism, 1950–2010: Providing the bones for the industrial society’s skeleton
We need a real “Alternatives to Mining” Indaba
Colombia in focus (II): Those opposing mining are considered terrorists
Colombia in focus: Mining, destroying and displacing indigenous people
Roşia Montană, A New Beginning – Screening and talk on building resilient communities
To Mine or not to Mine, that is the Question – Referendum in Tolima, Colombia
South Africa: 350africa.org, EarthLore and Womin call on Government to protect water and declare climate change state of emergency
World Bank lowers 2016 outlook on 37 of the 46 commodities it tracks
Ditch Coal

Ditch Coal

At the Coalface: Ten more years of UK coal burning a lifetime on the ground
Tesouro de Corcoesto

Tesouro de Corcoesto

  • Written on: 15 January 2016
  • Posted under: Videos
Mongolia: YLNM members DMNN suffer threats and assault for investigating illegal mining
Mining’s $1.4 trillion plunge is like losing Apple, Google and Exxon combined
Mongolia: Demonstrators stage sit in to demand an end to illegal mining
YLNM interview at D12 Paris climate march

YLNM interview at D12 Paris climate march

  • Written on: 17 December 2015
  • Posted under: Videos
COP Out: The hollow promise of the Paris climate deal
At COP21, the people and future generations will be failed once again
Bald Mountain protected from mining destruction in Maine, USA
COP21: Call for international recognition of rights of nature and communities
It’s time to create Annex 0!
Indigenous Peoples’ Caucus Statement to the 4th UN Forum on Business and Human Rights
Community Environmental Monitoring Guide
Rights of Nature and Mother Earth: Sowing seeds of resistance, love and change
Yes to Life and Climate Justice, No to Mining and Climate Catastrophe! (EN/FR)
Panel on Extractivism, the Law, and Human Rights
Yes to Life, No to Mining participates in the workshop “Mining and Energy Multinational Companies Strategies and Participation Mechanisms for Communities Defending their Territory” – Caquetá, Colombia
Free Trade Agreement 101

Free Trade Agreement 101

  • Written on: 17 November 2015
  • Posted under: Videos
Report: How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change
Empty promises: G20 subsidies to oil, gas and coal production
Community Rights & Resource Justice in Guinea

Community Rights & Resource Justice in Guinea

  • Written on: 12 November 2015
  • Posted under: Videos
Oilwatch COP21 proposal: Annex Zero
Interviews: Festival of Resistances and Rebellions

Interviews: Festival of Resistances and Rebellions

  • Written on: 23 October 2015
  • Posted under: Videos
Collected Materials: The Persecution and Violation of Earth and Human Rights Defenders
Measuring the Growth of the Global Fossil Fuel Divestment and Clean Energy Investment Movement
UK: Community opponents of planned Field House coal mine buoyed by international solidarity
21 Reasons not to mine copper in Intag, Ecuador

21 Reasons not to mine copper in Intag, Ecuador

Yaigojé-Apaporis: Colombian Constitutional Court decision to reject mining could change the history of the Amazon
What do you know about mining? | CATAPA – Generation Transition
Fighting Conga: an emblematic case – Perú
#StopBeloSun

#StopBeloSun

Our Resistance, Our Hope: Unity Statement of the International People’s Conference on Mining
For the Love of Water: El Salvador’s Mining Ban

For the Love of Water: El Salvador’s Mining Ban

Sustainable development is failing but there are alternatives to capitalism
Banks, Sign the Paris Pledge, Quit Coal!

Banks, Sign the Paris Pledge, Quit Coal!

  • Written on: 02 September 2015
  • Posted under: Campaigns
Collected Readings on Post-Extractivism
Study: Tailings Dam Failures On The Rise
Community Consent Index 2015
The right to say “No”: Indigenous rights experts on FPIC
ICT’s for Feminist Movement Building
‘Our Resistance, Our Hope’: A global unity forged to resist devastation of global mining liberalization
Perú shouts to defend their land from Tía María mining project
International People’s Conference on Mining 2015: A call for global solidarity against destructive mining
Colombia was part of the Global Day for Action Against Mega Mining
What can I do on the Global Day of Action Against Mega Mining?
22 July 2015 – Global Day of Action Against Mega Mining- DÍA MUNDIAL CONTRA LA MEGAMINERÍA
Mercury, contaminating agent – information leaflet
Caquetá, Colombia blocks petroleum extraction in the Andes-Amazon foothills
Africa-UK Civil Society Letter to the Mining on Top Africa: London Summit
Local researchers from YAIA receive the Equator Initiative Prize from UNDP in the Amazon
Mining Affected Peoples to Unite at International Peoples Conference on Mining, Manila 2015
A Guide for the Defense of Water
YLNM Global Solidarity Network promotes the Great Carnival Parade in Colombia
Glencore? No More! London protestors call for end to Glencore’s mining abuses in the Philippines and worldwide
Support the Maputo Declaration on Climate Justice!
Colombia in defense of water and the páramo high mountain ecosystems
Wangan and Jagalingou Peoples defend their land from Adani’s Carmichael Coal Mine
Women‘s Perspectives on the Impact of Mining on the Right to Food
Towards environmental justice success in mining resistances:  An empirical investigation
A Healthy Relationship? Wellcome Trust’s refusal to cut ties with fossil fuel industry is unacceptable
African civil society and global allies challenge Chatham House conference on ‘Extractive Industries in Africa’
The Legacy of Drummond in Colombia

The Legacy of Drummond in Colombia

  • Written on: 12 March 2015
  • Posted under: Videos
New Water Grabbing Platform Unites With Yes to Life, No to Mining
Rights of Nature Tribunals
Nnimmo Bassey says #YestoLifeNotoMining

Nnimmo Bassey says #YestoLifeNotoMining

  • Written on: 11 December 2014
  • Posted under: Videos
In Solidarity – En Solidaridad

In Solidarity – En Solidaridad

  • Written on: 11 December 2014
  • Posted under: Videos
Wake Up Call

Wake Up Call

  • Written on: 11 December 2014
  • Posted under: Videos
Idle No More: Movement for Indigenous Sovereignty

Idle No More: Movement for Indigenous Sovereignty

  • Written on: 04 December 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
Mining affected communities around the world say ‘No to Mining’ and seek to secure No Go Areas at the IUCN World Parks Congress
Mapping Violations of Human and Environmental Rights
Campaigns Against Coal

Campaigns Against Coal

  • Written on: 24 October 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
Deep Sea Mining Campaign

Deep Sea Mining Campaign

  • Written on: 22 October 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
MiningWatch Canada: Reports
Undermining Agriculture

Undermining Agriculture

  • Written on: 12 October 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
Yes to Life, No to mining Global Precedents
Insight Shares Guides to Participatory Video
Mining & Health: A Community-Centered Health Assessment Toolkit
Eradicating ecocide – a global campaign to change the legal system
The Campaign for Fossil Fuel Divestment

The Campaign for Fossil Fuel Divestment

  • Written on: 08 October 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
The Anti-Fracking Movement

The Anti-Fracking Movement

  • Written on: 08 October 2014
  • Posted under: Campaigns
Pitfalls & Pipelines: Indigenous Peoples and Extractive Industries
The Gaia Foundation: Opening Pandora’s Box Report
guides for Protecting Your Community Against Mining Companies

One Reader Comment

  1. Caroline says:

    :)*Sacred*…*♥*

Start a Conversation. Share Words of Solidarity.

This website is about building a movement. We can only build a movement when we connect with one another. We invite you to do just that…

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *